安科罗塑料落实全方位的碳纤复合材料理念 AKRO-PLASTIC to Implement Comprehensive Carbon Fibre Concept

■ Compiled by Jessy Lu -jessy.lu@kdf-asia.com

前言
AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH, specialists for over 25 years in innovative, application-orientated plastic compounds, has developed a complete process for the manufacture of a weight-saving polyamide compound reinforced with dry carbon fibre roving. The development was carried out within a consortium of companies along the value chain and in partnership with the compounding line manufacturer FEDDEM GmbH & Co. KG. 安科罗工程塑料公司是一个拥有超过25年经验以创新 应用为导向的塑料混炼专家,已经开发出使用碳纤维添 加增强来制造轻量化聚酰胺复合塑料的完整工艺技术。
这项工艺是由安科罗工程塑料公司与同一集团内的混炼 生产线制造商 FEDDEM GmbH & Co.KG. 以合作伙伴 关系,在价值链做上下游集成而成功开发出来的独特技 术。

AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH, located in Niederzissen, in the Rhineland-Palatinate region of Germany, has developed this new product range based on polyamide 6, polyamide 6.6, PPA and partially aromatic PA 6.6 (AKROLOY®). Reinforcement of these polymer types with carbon fibre contents of between 10 % and 40 % has been achieved. These materials, such as AKROMID® B ICF 40, a PA-6based compound, achieve a tensile modulus of 30,000 MPa and a flexural strength of 320 MPa with a breaking elongation of 1.8 %. AKROMID® A3 ICF 40, a PA-6.6-based compound, even achieves 33,000 MPa, with a flexural strength of 370 MPa. 安科罗工程塑料公司位于德国莱茵兰 – 普法尔茨地 区的下齐森,已经开发出聚酰胺6、聚酰胺6.6、 PPA 和部分芳香族 PA6.6 (AKROLOY®) 等新碳纤 增强产品系列。这些增强型聚合物中的碳纤含量介 於 10%-40%。这些复合材料中,例如 AKROMID®B ICF 40,是一种PA6 混炼塑料,其拉伸模量高达 30000MPa,弯曲强度 为 320MPa, 断裂伸长率为 1.8%。AKROMID® A3 ICF 40 则是一种 PA6.6 的混 鍊复合塑料,其拉伸模量甚至可到 33000MPa,弯曲 强度则可达到 370MPa。

The objective of this new reinforced product line is to drastically reduce the weight of high-strength components. The resultant cost of these products falls in line with glass-fibre-reinforced compounds for the first time. Without the presence of any negative commercial factors preventing substitution, projects can proceed with assured success. Together with partners PME Fluidtec and injection moulding machine manufacturer Engel, AKRO-PLASTIC demonstrated a production cell for clutch pedals at the Interplas trade show in Birmingham. The clutch pedal is made with AKROMID® B3 ICF 15 using a water injection process. The moulded component is nearly 10 % lighter than the same component made using a 30 % glass-fibre-reinforced PA 6, yet it is 25 % stiffer. This significant benefit is perfectly in line with the latest automotive industry requirements and is key to ensuring compliance with stringent regulations regarding fleet fuel consumption taking effect in 2020.

开发这一系列碳纤维增强产品系列主要目标是为了大 幅度减轻有高强度需求部件的重量,而且在成本上也 第一次有机会可以接近玻纤增强塑料的成本。 因此 可以在没有任何妨碍原料替代的不利商业因素出现的 情况下,能够顺利进行原料替代并确保专案项目的 成功。安科罗工程塑料公司与合作伙伴 PME fluidtec GmbH( 水辅助成型专家 ) 与 Engel GmbH ( 射出成 型专业制造商 )在伯明罕国际橡塑胶展推出以水辅助 射出成型的 AKROMID® B3 ICF 15 离合器踏板,此 成型品与原来用 30% 玻璃纤维增强 PA 6 相比,重量 减轻将近 10%,而且刚性提高 25%。这个意义重大的 轻量化优势与当前汽车产业的要求完美地契合,也是促使预计於 2020 年生效的降低汽车燃料规范,得以顺利执行的关键。

Please see the title photo for a geometry cross section of a clutch pedal showing uniformly distributed wall thickness. 离合器踏板的横切面展示均匀的成品肉厚 (首图)

The fact that a clutch pedal can be manufactured in such a sensitive process as the water injection process is testimony to the high quality of this newly created product line. The compounder sees great demand for this new series. “In addition to pedals and pedal mounts, we can quickly and easily reduce the weight of a number of large components currently made from glass-fibre-reinforced polyamide without losing sight of cost,” explains Thilo Stier, Head of Sales & Innovation at AKRO- PLASTIC. Components such as centre consoles, activated charcoal filters and control unit brackets
could also benefit from further advantages of carbon fibre such as: electrical shielding, favourable thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion coefficients. 这个以水辅助射出成型这样如此具有精密要求的加工 方式所生产的离合器踏板体现了这一系列复合塑料产 品的优异品质,也让安科罗工程塑料公司看见了这一 系列新产品的前景可期。安科罗工程塑料公司的行销 暨创新总监 Thilo Stier 如此解释”除了将脚踏板与脚 踏板固定架成功的减重外,我们也可以快速而轻易地 减少很多以玻纤增强尼龙制成的大型部件的重量,而 不会提高太多成本”。 其他零配件如中控设备,燃油滤清器支架,控制元件 支架等更会因为碳纤维的电气遮蔽效应,比较好的导 热性与较低的热膨胀系数而表现得更加优异。

Top performance for high-performance materials 高性能材料的极致表现
We are familiar with carbon-fibre reinforced  materials, often called CFK, from more exotic applications such as the construction of racing cars, aircraft or sports appliances. Price plays a minor role in these cases as its light-weight properties are the most important factor in the selection of material. AKRO-PLASTIC would now like to also make these properties accessible to other industrial segments at an economic price point. 我们精通的碳纤维增强材料,又称 CFK,它也可以应 用在其他更加特殊的的领域,如跑车的结构件,航空 与 运动器材等。而原料的单价在这些应用的原料选择 上扮演的并非最关键的角色,因为轻量化的特性才是 使用者真正的考量重点。所以安科罗工程塑料公司现 在的目标是提供其他工业的客户也有机会可以使用到 这些性价比优异的材料。


Lightweight without compromises 没有妥协的轻量化

AKRO-PLASTIC offers carbon-fibre reinforcement of between 10 % and 40 % for all standard thermoplastic polyamides, whereby even special settings such as mixing with other reinforcement materials are also possible (see table 1). 安科罗工程塑料公司也提供各种不同种类的热塑性尼
龙组合与其他塑料10%到40% 碳纤维含量的物性增 强规格。( 表 1)

Table 1 AKROMID®ICF Product Porfirio 表 1 AKROMID® ICF 产品组合

If you compare the mechanical properties of the carbon-fibre reinforced polyamides with those of conventional glass-fibre compounds, you can easily see that similar properties can be achieved with a significantly reduced level of reinforcement using carbon-fibre reinforcement. As a result, components with a much lighter inherent weight can be manufactured without any compromises in terms of the technical properties (see table 2). 如果比较碳纤复合尼龙与传统玻纤复合尼龙的机械特 性,你可以轻易地发现玻纤复合尼龙的物性可以用较 低含量的碳纤复合尼龙来达成。因此,我们可以得到 大幅轻量化的成品,但却不需要牺牲塑料原来的机械 强度。( 表 2)

Table 2 Comparison of AKROMID®ICF vs. AKROMID®GF   表 2 AKROMID®ICF 与 AKROMID®GF 的对比

After the successful market launch of its carbonfibre reinforced polyamide compounds, AKROP- LASTIC has now also developed other materials based on polyketone (AKROTEK® ICF) and PBT (PRECITE® ICF). These polymers also demonstrate the sophisticated properties of carbon fibre, like the polyamides (see table 3). 在成功地将碳纤复合尼龙行销至市场后,安科罗工程 塑料公司也陆续开发出 polyketone (AKROTEK®ICF) 与 PBT (PRECITE® ICF)的碳纤增强规格 , 这些塑料 的碳纤复合规格也展现了如同碳纤复合尼龙的优良物 性。( 表 3)

Table 3 AKROTEK® PK ICF and PRECITE®ICF   表 3 AKROTEK® PK ICF 与 PRECITE®ICF

In fuel-carrying components, a minimum level of electrical conductivity is required for safety reasons. Quick connectors (figure 1), which aft Automotive GmbH in Greven builds into static dissipative fuel systems, are manufactured by MKS Kunststoff- Spritzguß GmbH from the high-temperature material AKROMID® T1 CGM 15/10 S1 (6431). The materials is an impact-modified glass and carbon fibre-reinforced PPA, which in addition to the electrostatic discharge also has mechanical properties allowing the complex latching functions and the assembly of the quick connector. 在装载有燃油的部件中,基於安全原因需要电性最低 的材料。位于 Greven 的 AFT Automotive GmbH 所 制造用于静电消除燃油系统的快插接头(图 1),是 由 MKS Kunststoff-Spritzguß GmbH 使用耐高温材料AKROMID® T1 CGM 15/10 S1 加工而成。该材料为同 时以玻纤和碳纤增强,耐冲击性改良的 PPA (高温尼 龙)复合材料,具有静电释放功能和高机械性能,以 符合快插接头需要具备的复杂锁定和快速组装要求。

图 1: 由 MKS Kunststoff-Spritzguß GmbH 与 AFT Automotive GmbH 以 AKROMID®T1CGM 生产的消静电燃油系统的快插接头

A similar requirements profile is fulfilled by the fuel filter bracket very cheaply manufactured by Hasenthaler Kunststoffverarbeitung from AKROMID® B3 CGM 15/20 1 black (5489). This has also allowed Mann + Hummel to verify the price-performance ratio of the material following comprehensive testing. The balanced ratio of glass fibre and carbon fibre reinforcement also allows precise manufacturing with the strictest tolerances. (Figure 2).
Most components made from ICF compounds use the extreme stiffness of the material at low filler levels. As such, Grammer GmbH successfully replaced a PA66 GF 30 with AKROMID ® A3 ICF 10 (5117) in the centre console for BMW and in doing so reduced the weight by over 15% with the same mechanics. Other examples of successful weight saving are the control panel steering wheel from Joma-Polytec GmbH and a roof rack manufactured by JAC Product in Michigan. 由 Hasenthaler Kunststoff ver arbeitung 使 用 AKROMID®B3 CGM 15/20 1 黑色 (5489) 制造的燃 油滤清器支架满足了类似的性能要求,并且成本优势 明显。这也使曼·胡默尔公司在全面测试后验证了材料 的性价比。玻纤和碳纤维共同增强的最佳化平衡比例 也确保了成品可以符合最严格公差的精密制造要求。 (图 2)

图 2: 由 Hasenthaler Kunststoffverarbeitung 以 AKROMID®B3CGM 15/20 生产的燃油滤清器支架

大多数由 ICF 改性材料制成的部件只需要使用低碳 纤维填充百分比,即可达到材料的优异刚性。比如, Grammer GmbH 成功地使用 AKROMID®A3 ICF 10 (5117) 替代了 PA66 GF 30 来制造的宝马 (BMW) 汽 车的中控台,并在不降低机械性能的情况下减重高达 15%以上。由 Joma-Polytec GmbH 制造的控制面板 方向盘支架和由 Michigan 的 JAC Product 制造的车 顶行李架也是轻量化的成功案例。

The control panel steering wheel bracket from AKROMID® A3 ICF 20 (5102) carries all the control elements of the steering wheel and must position the components with minimal vibration and with precision. Here, a polyamide 66 GF 50 was replaced saving significantly more than 20% in weight. With the roof rack manufactured from the crabon-fibrereinforced PA/PP blend AKROMID B3 ICF 15 1L, the maximum weight reduction was achieved with the addition of the AF-Complex TM propellant.
The component weight was reduced compared to the glass-fibre-reinforced polyamide 6 by around
600 g to under 1 kg and meets all the requirements in dimensional accuracy and mechanical load. The black color, which is inherent to all carbon-fibre compounds, could be considered a limitation, but is a welcome side-effect for many applications. 由 AKROMID®A3 ICF 20(5102)制成的控制面板 方向盘支架承载着方向盘的所有控制元件,必须以最 小的振动和最高精度定位元件。使用AKROMID®A3 ICF 20(5102)替代 PA66 GF 50 后,重量显著降低 20%以上。车顶行李架由碳纤维增强的PA/PP接枝 共聚物 AKROMID B3 ICF 15 1 L 制成,通过添加 AFComplex TM化学发泡母粒实现了最大的减重。与使 用玻璃纤维增强 PA6 改性材料相比,部件重量减少了 约600g 至 1kg,并且满足尺寸精度和机械承载的所 有要求。黑色作为所有碳纤维复合材料的固有颜色, 或许可能造成应用限制,但对许多应用来说黑色恰恰 是所需要的颜色。

Engine covers in cars are almost always black because most plastics discolor significantly within hours under the conditions in the engine compartment. The high temperatures, the unavoidable contact with aggressive media and the necessity to be able to disassemble and reassemble parts in the engine compartment make it necessary to use robust materials.
The polymer of choice is polyamide. Today, mineral or glass-fibre mineral reinforced polyamides are often used. These materials are easy to process and meet the mechanical requirements, but the surface quality of these components are not easy to control.

The high demands of designers are not always met. Carbon-fibre reinforced materials are an excellent alternative here, because the mechanical properties demanded can easily be met with a 10% filler content. A positive side-effect is a significant weight reduction of around 20% with a significantly more homogeneous surface quality.

由于引擎室内的高温条件,大多数引擎罩盖的塑料在数小时内都会显著变色,所以汽车的引擎罩盖几乎都 是黑色的。引擎室部件必须能耐高温,同时不可避 免 地会接触到腐蚀性介质,而且部件还必须能够拆卸和 重新组装,这些因素决定必须使用坚固结实的材料来 制造该部件。而被选中的聚合物就是聚酰胺。目前, 最被常使用的是纯矿物填充或玻纤矿物共混增强聚醯 胺。这些材料易于加工并满足机械强度要求,但所制 造部件的表面质量不易控制,有时无法满足设计师 的严格要求。此时碳纤维增强材料是一种很好的替代 品,只要10%的碳纤填充含量就可以轻松满足所需的 机械性能。 此外,更加正面的效应是,可显著减重约 20%,制品表面质量也明显更加均匀。

Even the most sophisticated visible components can be manufactured. Radiator grilles, which are almost the same in all cars, typically have horizontal blades, which must be highly rigid due to their function.
The components are also in the direct field of vision of the car passengers and should therefore fit into the dashboard design, particularly in terms of quality. Accordingly, the requirements for surface quality of the plastic parts are high, especially where an additional lacquering step is to be avoided. With AKROLOY® PARA ICF 40 black (6128), a very stiff material (e-module approx. 40 GPa), the Dr Schneider Group from Kronach-Neuses was not only able to meet the purely technical requirements, but also manufacture blades with excellent surface quality (figure 3). These radiator grilles are used in the current BMW 7 series.
碳纤维增强的聚酰胺材料甚至可以用于制造最复杂的 外观部件。空调出风口叶片在所有汽车中几乎相同, 通常具有水平叶片,由于其功能要求,叶片必须具 有高刚性。这些部件也因为处於汽车乘客的直接视 野范围内,必须符合仪表板设计要求,尤其是在质量方面。因此,对塑料部件的外观质量要求很高,尤其是在无法做额外喷涂处理的情况下。使用超高刚度的 AKROLOY®PARA  ICF 40 黑色(6128)材料 ( 杨氏 模量约 40 GPa),Kronach-Neuses 的 Dr.Schneider Group 生产的出风口叶片不仅能够满足技术要求,而且表面质量优异(图 3)。因而使得这些出风口叶片可以成功地被BMW宝马 7 系列所采用。

图 3: 由 Dr. Schneider Company Group. 用 AKROLOY®PARA ICF 40 生产的空调出风口叶片

AKRO-PLASTIC’s Background 关于安科罗工程塑料公司
AKRO-PLASTIC’s history stretches back more than 30 years. In this time, we have accrued a wealth of knowledge and experience in the field of plastic compounding. We have been operating under our own brand name within the Feddersen Group since 1998. Since then, we have experienced constant growth. We produce over 180,000 tonnes of plastic compounds annually and specialize in developing upgrading standards and plastic technologies which can offer the solutions for any specific industry and application.

Our production sites are located in Germany, China and Brazil, and we work within an international network that can offer services ranging from development to logistics. In response to rapidly changing market requirements, we use globally Standardized Compounding and Extrusion Technology (ICX®),which we developed with our sister company FEDDEM.
安科罗工程塑料公司的成立至今已有超过30年的历 史。我们在复合塑料的领域累积了丰富的专业知识与 经验。自1998年起我们加入开德阜集团,并以自有品牌运作,销售业绩也逐年成长。目前我们每年有超 过18万吨的产能,我们专门研究标準升级与塑料技 术,专为特定行业和应用设计方案。

我们生产基地分布於德国、中国与巴西;而且我们具 有遍布国际间的运作架构,可以提供从应用开发到物 流支援的完整服务。为了因应快速变化的市场需求, 我们使用与集团内部姊妹公司(FEDEM) 合作开发的全 球标準化混炼押出技术(ICX®) 。■

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